Ericsson announces a 5G access network – but what is 5G?

John Delaney, associate VP European Mobility, IDC

On August 31, 2016, Ericsson announced the launch of its new AIR 6468 cellular radio. Ericsson stated that together with the 5G Plug-Ins announced in June, and the (already available) Radio System Baseband 5216, it now offers all the components of a 5G access network.

AIR 6468 embodies advanced antenna technology that enables beamforming, massive MIMO and multi-user MIMO. The new radio will become commercially available in mid-2017.

Although there is no technical specification for 5G networks yet, when it comes to using 5G as a marketing tool the mobile network equipment providers (NEPs) are definitely cranking up the volume. At Mobile World Congress 2016 in February, Nokia announced AirScale, a cloud RAN server described in the launch release, and by CEO Rajeev Suri, as being “5G ready”. With its new announcement, Ericsson has ventured a step further, claiming that it will be able to deliver “a whole 5G radio access network (RAN)” in 2017, says John Delaney, associate VP European Mobility, IDC.

All this begs a big, basic question: what is 5G? There is no formal specification for 5G mobile networks yet. That being the case, how can NEPs describe their products as “5G”, or even “5G-ready”, and what are we to make of such claims? Is this simply a case of marketing hype, appropriating the new-generation label for something which is simply a new product? There are certainly precedents for that. In 2010, for example, the US operator T-Mobile used “4G” in its marketing to describe its faster 3G service, enabled by applying the HSPA+ upgrade.

Rajeev Suri, CEO, Nokia
Rajeev Suri, CEO, Nokia

On the other hand, it can be plausibly argued that we do not need to wait for the whole specification process to be complete before we can know what 5G is. Formal ratification of the standard is the end-point of a lengthy process, during the course of which it becomes increasingly clear what the specification will contain. Thus, before we have a full definition of 5G, touchstones will emerge which will enable us to assess the merits of a claim to be “5G ready”, or even “5G”.

3GPP is the body that defines standards for public cellular networks in licensed spectrum (despite the scope for confusion arising from its increasingly anachronistic name). 3GPP’s work on specifying 5G was kicked off at its conference entitled RAN Workshop on 5G, in September 2015.

The conference set out a timeline for the 5G specification process, comprising two phases:

  • Phase 1 to be completed around June 2018, with the “freezing” of 3GPP Release 15. This will essentially result in a working definition of 5G
  • Phase 2 to be completed at the end of 2019, with the “freezing” of 3GPP Release 16. This will be a complete 5G specification, coinciding with two other key events: firstly, completion of IMT-2020, the International Telecom Union (ITU)’s framework for development of mobile networks in the 2020s and 2030s; and secondly, the allocation of new spectrum for mobile at the next session of the World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC)

The 3GPP’s RAN Workshop reached agreement on three broad use cases that 5G should address:

  • Enhanced mobile broadband
  • Massive machine-type communications
  • Ultra-reliable and low-latency communications

Although these use cases do not mandate any technologies, they do indicate certain groups of technology that are prime candidates to fulfil the use cases. “Massive” communications, for example, indicates the need to use higher-frequency spectrum, which in turn points to advanced MIMO, advanced beam forming and beam tracking. Another example is “low-latency” communications, which points to the need for a more decentralised network architecture, a design goal of ETSI’s mobile edge computing (MEC) initiative. These use case-related technologies can therefore be seen as touchstones for 5G relevance.

Another touchstone for 5G is “new radio” (NR). The 3GPP’s RAN Workshop noted an “emerging consensus” that 5G will include a new technology for the RAN that is not compatible with the RAN technologies used in previous generations. It is too soon to know what technology will be adopted to fulfill the NR requirement, but on the basis of this statement we can at least say that if a RAN uses the technologies of previous mobile generations, then it is probably not a 5G RAN.

Hossein Moiin, CTO, Nokia
Hossein Moiin, CTO, Nokia

So how justified are NEPs when they label their products “5G”? A year ago, when such labels started to emerge, we were skeptical, because from the technology standpoint some of the big questions about 5G remain open. However, we believe we are now starting to get an appreciably clearer view of what 5G networks are likely to look like, enabled by the establishment of consensus within 3GPP around (1) the principal use cases and (2) the presence of NR as part of the 5G specification.

  • Nokia’s use of 5G as a product description is based primarily on the use cases. For CTO Hossein Moiin, “5G is not necessarily about radio – it’s about an era in which mobile networks can help us to transform other industries, so that operators can unlock new sources of revenue.” Examples of use cases that Nokia sees as characteristic of 5G include massive IoT, critical communications and autonomous driving.
  • Ericsson’s claim to 5G credentials seem, on the basis of today’s announcements, to be more focused on the technology aspects of 5G. In addition to advanced MIMO and beam forming, Ericsson refers prominently to NR in its announcements – indeed, the press release for the AIR 6468 launch is titled “Ericsson first to deliver 5G NR radio”. At Mobile World Congress 2016, then-CEO Hans Vestberg referred to his expectation that we will see “pre-5G” and “pre-commercial” networks considerably in advance of the finished specification for 5G.

IDC_logo.8.16We should also bear in mind that the NEP landscape has undergone substantial consolidation since the current generation of mobile networks was defined. As a result, the majority of the market for RAN equipment is now accounted for by three companies: Ericsson, Nokia and Huawei. (Huawei’s marketing is mainly stressing 4.5G (ie, LTE-A Pro) at present, but it is also very active in developing candidate technologies for 5G.) These companies do not passively receive specifications and technologies that have been developed elsewhere.

To an increasing extent, the technologies and products that the NEPs develop determine both the things that mobile networks can do, and the technologies that are used to do them. We cannot go so far as to say that the NEPs’ R&D projects define 5G; but as we get nearer to a specification for 5G, these companies’ research and products will exert a growing influence over the contents of that specification.

We don’t know exactly what 5G is yet. But we’ve reached the point where we know enough about 5G to see what it will not be, and to get growing clarity about what it is likely to be. On that basis, we believe we’re now entering the period in which vendors’ claims to have 5G products need to be considered on their merits, rather than being dismissed out of hand for being “too early”.

The author of this blog is John Delaney, associate VP European Mobility, IDC

Comment on this article below or via Twitter: @IoTNow_ OR @jcIoTnow


9 IoT applications that will change everything

Posted on: September 1, 2021

Whether you are a future-minded CEO, tech-driven CEO or IT leader, you’ve come across the term IoT before. It’s often used alongside superlatives regarding how it will revolutionize the way you work, play, and live. But is it just another buzzword, or is it the as-promised technological holy grail? The truth is that Internet of

Read more

Which IoT Platform 2021? IoT Now Enterprise Buyers’ Guide

Posted on: August 30, 2021

There are several different parts in a complete IoT solution, all of which must work together to get the result needed, write IoT Now Enterprise Buyers’ Guide – Which IoT Platform 2021? authors Robin Duke-Woolley, the CEO and Bill Ingle, a senior analyst, at Beecham Research. Figure 1 shows these parts and, although not all

Read more

CAT-M1 vs NB-IoT – examining the real differences

Posted on: June 21, 2021

As industry players look to provide the next generation of IoT connectivity, two different standards have emerged under release 13 of 3GPP – CAT-M1 and NB-IoT.

Read more

IoT and home automation: What does the future hold?

Posted on: June 10, 2020

Once a dream, iot home automation is slowly but steadily becoming a part of daily lives around the world. In fact, it is believed that the global market for smart home automation will reach $40 billion by 2020.

Read more

Infineon and Rainforest Connection create real-time monitoring system to detect wildfires

Posted on: October 22, 2021

Munich and San Jose, California, 21 October, 2021 – Infineon Technologies AG a provider of semiconductors for mobility, energy efficiency and the IoT, announced a collaboration with Rainforest Connection (RFCx), a non-profit organisation that uses acoustic technology, Big Data and Artificial Intelligence / Machine Learning to save the rainforests and monitor biodiversity.

Read more

Infineon simplifies secure IoT device-to-cloud authentication with CIRRENT Cloud ID service

Posted on: October 21, 2021

Munich, Germany. 21 October 2021 – Infineon Technologies AG launched CIRRENT Cloud ID, a service that automates cloud certificate provisioning and IoT device-to-cloud authentication. The easy-to-use service extends the chain of trust and makes tasks easier and more secure from chip-to-cloud, while lowering companies’ total cost of ownership. Cloud ID is ideal for cloud-connected product companies

Read more